Part 2: Health apps, wearables, and sensors: The advancing frontier of digital health

谷歌的品牌价值现在超过了1090亿美元,比苹果公司要高大约20亿美元,这使其成为了全世界最赚钱的公司。
下载量紧随《权力的游戏》之后的是美剧《绝命毒师》和《行尸走肉》。以下是根据BT下载网站 TorrentFreak和BitTorrent 数据统计的2013年被下载次数最多的美剧排名:
"Poverty has stunted further growth in Internet users, which has kept the Net user population to around 50 percent," Li said.
《伯德小姐》
Spielman was sifting through dirt at the Emek Tzurim national park on the slopes of the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem when she noticed the small rectangular object.
Explaining how he adjusted the novel, he said: 'I think the answer is that in the book I remain true to every one of Bond's things.
Supporting Actress in a Comedy: Kate McKinnon, “Saturday Night Live”
The Lost Tomb
亲爱的妻子
"It is a truly a global phenomenon in which people, due to lack of opportunities, have to leave their families behind to provide for them," said Pedro De Vasconcelos, IFAD policy advisor and author of the report.
Some 150,000 rural residents in southwest China's Tibet Autonomous Region escaped poverty last year, according to the Tibet Poverty Alleviation Office.
As consumers in developing countries continue to shift to meat-based diets, grains and oilseeds used as livestock feed are expected to see support.
Trade flows brought China’s balance of trade to $40.82bn, roughly $7.2bn below expectations and down about $3.6bn from November’s revised level of $44.23bn (previously $44.61bn). That balance came to Rmb275.4bn in local-currency terms.
How has your trip to the US sofar this summer?
2013 Rank: 14
Interviewers made their share of blunders, too.
爱德华卢斯(Edward Luce)
Trump’s trade war with China
5. 《卡罗尔》,导演:托德·海因斯。
据美国艾美仕医疗信息研究所周四发布的名为《全球用药:展望2018》的报告,2013年的药品费用支出提高了7个百分点,而2014年的药品总支出将达1.06万亿美元。
Take targeted and powerful measures to strengthen areas of weakness.
n. 代表,副手
乔布斯靠在一台“麦金托什”个人电脑上在股东大会谈笑风生,1984年1月,旧金山,库比蒂诺
瑞士洛桑国际管理发展学院在针对所有在职管理人员的开放招生课程排行榜中拔得头筹,在针对企业客户的定制课程排行榜中攀升了两位,升至第二。西班牙Iese商学院在定制课程排行榜上继续保持榜首位置,在开放课程排行榜中仍位居第二。
com共同,miss=mit送-共同送东西到指定处-委托com共同,mission(n 使命,任务)-受了别人的委托,说明你得到了别人的信任,所以这是一种使命。


报告称,北上广深等一线城市居民承受着较大的经济压力;而四线及以下城市的工作机会较少,人脉在生活的各个方面都起着重要作用。
Make sure you've got a good plan for seeing that your children are cared for when you're scheduled to be in class, and when you need to study. It really is possible to raise children while you're going to school. People do it every day.
Hope you enjoy the happiness of New Year and all the trimmings.祝你享尽新年佳节的快乐和新年的礼品。


With the increasing proliferation and sophistication of mobile phones, wearable devices such as smart watches, and sensors that can measure and gather a variety of data, public interest is growing in using consumer electronics to take ownership of personal health and wellness. A 2015 survey found that 66% of Americans age 66 and older want to use mobile technologies to improve their health by receiving medication reminders and tracking diet and nutrition, physical activity, and symptoms.[1

不要在月薪上撒谎。即使你的上任老板没告诉我们(大多数情况都是这样),我们还是会弄清楚的。我还因此开除掉两名员工。
安汉德
曾在许多公司里面工作过----大公司或小公司----我看到过很多的方法有些起作用,有些并不起作用。
本文为与《时代》杂志的合作内容。

Health apps and wearables
Health apps and wearables can unobtrusively gauge physiological and emotional states and collect, quantify, and monitor data regarding a user’s day-to-day behaviors. This “quantified self” can increase users’ self-awareness regarding their behavior and encourage positive changes to their overall health and well-being.[2] These commercially available devices also integrate an array of features to provide motivation through reward systems, opportunities for social in-teraction, tools for self-improvement, and prompts. The novelty, affordability, practicality, and ease of use have resulted in increased consumer enthusiasm and the pervasiveness of these devices.[3,4] With this growing interest in personal health, members of the general public are becoming more involved in monitoring and improving their own health habits.[5-10

Undoubtedly, merely tracking data through a device is not enough to maintain good health-related behaviors long-term, and the software must also incorporate motivational constructs important for the adoption and habituation of behaviors. For instance, a systematic review of studies that considered the use of electronic activity monitor systems found short-term changes in physical activity with self-monitoring, but no demonstration of superiority when the systems were compared with other interventions.[11] Another review of studies on the viability of using mobile technology for measuring and influencing physical activity found that most apps allow users to document their activity, set goals, review real-time feedback, connect to a social support network, and access online expertise.[12] However, less common among these apps were prompts to act and opportunities for problem solving and action planning, which are crucial constructs that translate intention into long-term behavior change.[13]

Sensor technologies
Sensor technologies have begun to enter the telehealth landscape and are primarily focused on continuous monitoring and precise diagnostics to inform management of various health conditions and diseases.[14-17] Sensors can be integrated into a watch or arm band or adhesive bandages and clothing, and then programmed to collect data on cardiac rhythm, heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, oxygen saturation, galvanic skin response, glucose levels, body temperature, body motions, ambient temperature, and global positioning. For health care providers, sensor inputs can permit remote monitoring, real-time teleconferencing, and timely care for patients with chronic diseases. For both patients and clinicians, telehealth supported by sensors can have profound implications. Clinicians can provide timely and patient-centred care to those living at a distance with chronic disease and can coordinate care when multiple providers are involved, reducing costs to the health care system.

A current clinical example is the management of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with a mobile ECG and app that monitors the patient’s electrical rhythm to detect frequency and patterns of arrhythmias, and may even allow patients to share ultrasound and electrocardiogram data with their health care provider.[18-20] Telemonitoring with sensors can also support self-management of chronic diseases and detect early signs of deterioration in health requiring immediate treatment and advice.[21] Studies to date have demonstrated some clinical promise for the use of home telemonitoring in the context of heart failure and diabetes. A recent Cochrane review found that telemonitoring was an effective way to lower levels of glycated hemoglobin and low-density lipoprotein.[22] Although several studies on heart failure have produced conflicting results regarding the overall benefits of home monitoring,[23-26] systematic reviews have suggested that home telemonitoring reduces all-cause mortality and hospitalizations, and improves quality of life compared with usual care.[22,27] In addition, features such as automated and mobile telemonitoring appear to be more effective compared with other forms of home telemonitoring.[27]

Further studies are needed to determine how home health monitoring can improve patient safety during the transition from acute care to community care, and to examine the impact of home monitoring on health care costs. TEC4Home (Telehealth for Emergency-Community Continuity of Care Connectivity via Home Tele-monitoring), an initiative of the University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health, is seeking to do this with prospective trials designed to uncover how telemonitoring can support the safety of heart failure patients discharged from hospital to home.[28]

Mobile apps, wearables, and sensors in the clinical setting
Even though mobile apps, wearables, and sensor technologies are promising, further research is needed to validate their use and long-term impact.[29] This research will require the collaboration of clinicians, health researchers, engineers, and computer scientists.[30] Understanding the possible risks of using these technologies, from physiological harm to breaching of privacy and confidentiality with insecure devices, and how to mitigate any risks is also important. Other important issues to consider include patient anxiety with overuse of technologies, health data piracy, self-diagnosis resulting from overreliance on self-monitoring, and patients not seeking help appropriately. These technologies should be used only as complementary tools in the treatment and prevention of health conditions and disease and should not be used in isolation by patients who self-diagnose and self-manage without consulting a health professional. 

自从在2009年从榜单的第一位落到第五位之后,小甜甜布兰妮的排名继续下滑,随着嘎嘎小姐和贾斯汀 比伯这些新星的走红,布兰妮在2010年仅名列第十位。

Instant Heart Rate by Azumio.[31] A free app downloadable to both Apple and Android operating systems that measures heart rate and displays a monitoring strip. As well as helping users accurately track their heart rates, the app is capable of detecting irregular rhythms when palpitations occur. 

Sleep Time by Azumio.[32] A free app that monitors sleep patterns, sleep efficiency, and also acts as an alarm clock. Users can know how often they go into light and deep sleep, and recognize how much of these types of sleep will be necessary for them to feel rested, thereby quantifying the amount of true sleep they need and not just how long they should stay in bed. 

Bellybio Interactive Breating by RelaxLine.[33] A free app that helps users pace their breathing to achieve calmness. Placing the mobile phone against the abdomen, users can follow the sounds emitted to practise deep, abdominal breathing using this simple yet surprisingly effective tool. 

他有能力向球迷们展示接下来的计划吗?——不管是什么计划。在又一个无论场内场外都丑陋的赛季后,尼克斯球迷当然有理由知道上述两个问题的答案。
Recruits are expected to have a decent degree result — a 2.1 or above. While academic credentials are important, Teach First also looks for personal skills such as humility, respect and empathy. Applications to join the scheme outnumber the places available by seven to one.

"Protections that promote equality and diversity should not be conditional on someone's sexual orientation," he wrote. "For too long, too many people have had to hide that part of their identity in the workplace."
平均工作经验:费城班10年,旧金山班12年
Henda Ayari created a storm when she denounced radical Islam. Now, inspired by the #MeToo campaign, she has accused an Oxford professor of rape.
后来,通用汽车在1958年设计出一款无人驾驶汽车,其原理是:由线圈感知道路中所嵌入电线的交流电信号,并相应地调整方向盘。然而汽车确实能自主驾驶,但并不能称为第一辆全自动驾驶汽车,因为它必须依赖嵌在地面的电线。在日本的筑波机械工程实验室,津川和他的几个同事发明了世界上第一辆自动驾驶汽车。然而,德国工程师恩斯特·迪克斯被称为无人驾驶汽车的先驱。1987年,他发明的"极速",时速超过90千米(56英里/小时),行驶了大约20千米(12分钟)。7年后,他发明的VaMP,不但可以识别道路标记,而且能定位自己在车道内的位置,还能勘测其他车辆,甚至能判断何时该变道。一年后,他和他的团队发明的自动驾驶汽车,从德国行驶到丹麦,最高时速为180千米(111英里/小时)。整段旅程中,仅有5%左右的路程是人为驾驶。
Roth, 60, is a professor at Harvard University in Boston. Shapley, 89, is a professor emeritus at University of California Los Angeles.
4. 《卡罗尔》(Carol)。这是托德·海因斯(Todd Haynes)第一次执导不由自己编剧的影片,编剧菲丽丝·奈吉(Phyllis Nagy)简化了派翠西亚·海史密斯(Patricia Highsmith)的小说原著,海因斯藉此再次证明,电影导演不必依靠拍自己亲自写的剧本才能成为伟大导演,这个真理却遭到许多雄心勃勃或功成名就的导演忽略。

Discernment to determine whether a particular app, wearable, or sensor can be effective.
Expertise and experience to guide patients on the use of technology.
Partnership with patients in pursuit of optimal health through technology use.
Trials to closely monitor benefits and drawbacks.
Humility to recognize that patients may know and invest much more time than physicians in looking for these tools.34

Conclusions
Based on today’s rapid pace of development and public enthusiasm for the technology marketplace, health apps, wearables, and sensors will soon become integral to our patients’ pursuits of good health and will need to be integrated in clinical practice. Physicians must be active agents in these evolutionary times, guiding patients, advocating for evidence to support the use of technologies, and participating in the development and incorporation of technology in patient wellness journeys. Through clinical stewardship and partnership with patients, physicians can use their expertise and experience to guide the growth of innovations into mainstream health care.

Competing interests
Dr Ho receives no personal financial compensation as the principal investigator of TEC4Home (Telehealth for Emergency-Community Continuity of Care Connectivity via Home Tele-monitoring), a project funded by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research grant. This grant is matched by the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research and the BC Ministry of Health, with additional support provided by TELUS Health and Sentrian. TELUS Health, Cisco, and Avizia have also provided equipment for display in Dr Ho’s Demonstration and Simulation Studio for Health (DaSSH) at UBC. Mr Yao and Dr Lauscher have no competing interests to declare.


建材原材料价格全线上涨 家居行业应该如何应对?


References

1. Cision PR Newswire. Fifth annual Pulse of Online Health survey finds 66% of Americans eager to leverage digital tools to manage personal health. Posted 24 February 2015. Accessed 28 August 2017. www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/fifth-annual-pulse-of-online-health-survey-finds-66-of-americans-eager-to-leverage-digital-tools-to-manage-personal-health-300039986.html.

2. Swan M. Emerging patient-driven health care models: An examination of health social networks, consumer personalized medicine and quantified self-tracking. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2009;6:492-525.

3. Gao Y, Li H, Luo Y. An empirical study of wearable technology acceptance in healthcare. Ind Manag Data Syst 2010;115:1704-1723.

4. Kim KJ, Shin DH. An acceptance model for smart watches: Implications for the adoption of future wearable technology. Internet Res 2015;25:527-541.

5. West JH, Hall PC, Hanson CL, et al. There’s an app for that: Content analysis of paid health and fitness apps. J Med Internet Res 2012;14:e72.

6. Abroms LC, Padmanabhan N, Thaweethai L, Phillips T. iPhone apps for smoking cessation: A content analysis. Am J Prev Med 2011;40:279-285.

7. Cowan LT, Van Wagenen SA, Brown BA, et al. Apps of steel: Are exercise apps providing consumers with realistic expectations? A content analysis of exercise apps for presence of behavior change theory. Health Educ Behav 2013;40:133-139.

8. Azar KM, Lesser LI, Laing BY, et al. Mobile applications for weight management. Am J Prev Med 2013;45:583-589.

9. Breland JY, Yeh VM, Yu J. Adherence to evidence-based guidelines among diabetes self-management apps. Transl Behav Med 2013;3:277-286.

10. Lyons EJ, Lewis ZH, Mayrsohn BG, Rowland JL. Behavior change techniques implemented in electronic lifestyle activity monitors: A systematic content analysis. J Med Internet Res 2014;16:e192.

11. Lewis ZH, Lyons EJ, Jarvis JM, Baillargeon J. Using an electronic activity monitor system as an intervention modality: A systematic review. BMC Public Health 2015;15:585.

12. Bort-Roig J, Gilson ND, Puig-Ribera A, et al. Measuring and influencing physical activity with smartphone technology: A systematic review. Sports Med 2014;44:671-686.

13. Rhodes RE, Yao CA. Models accounting for intention-behavior discordance in the physical activity domain: A user’s guide, content overview, and review of current evidence. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2015;12:1-14.

14. Chen M, Gonzalez S, Vasilakos A, et al. Body area networks: A survey. Mob Networks Appl 2011;16:171-193.

15. Appelboom G, Camacho E, Abraham ME, et al. Smart wearable body sensors for patient self-assessment and monitoring. Arch Public Health 2014;72:28.

16. Chan M, Estève D, Fourniols JY, et al. Smart wearable systems: Current status and future challenges. Artif Intell Med 2012;56:137-156.

17. Alemdar H, Ersoy C. Wireless sensor networks for healthcare: A survey. Comput Networks 2010;54:2688-2710.

18. Haberman ZC, Jahn RT, Bose R, et al. Wireless smartphone ECG enables large-scale screening in diverse populations. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2015;26:520-526.

19. Ferdman DJ, Liberman L, Silver ES. A smartphone application to diagnose the mechanism of pediatric supraventricular tachycardia. Pediatr Cardiol 2015;36:1452-1457.

20. Baquero GA, Banchs JE, Ahmed S, et al. Surface 12 lead electrocardiogram recordings using smart phone technology. J Electrocardiol 2015;48:1-7.

21. Wootton R. Twenty years of telemedicine in chronic disease management—An evidence synthesis. J Telemed Telecare 2012;18:211-220.

22. Flodgren G, Rachas A, Farmer A, et al. Interactive telemedicine: Effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database System Rev 2015;(9):CD002098.

23. Mortara A, Pinna GD, Johnson P, et al. Home telemonitoring in heart failure patients: The HHH study (Home or Hospital in Heart Failure). Eur J Heart Fail 2009;11:312-318.

24. Dar O, Riley J, Chapman C, et al. A randomized trial of home telemonitoring in a typical elderly heart failure population in North West London: Results of the Home-HF study. Eur J Heart Fail 2009;11:319-325.

25. Chaudhry SI, Mattera JA, Curtis JP, et al. Telemonitoring in patients with heart failure. N Engl J Med 2010;363:2301-2309.

26. Koehler F, Winkler S, Schieber M, et al. Impact of remote telemedical management on mortality and hospitalizations in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure: The Telemedical Interventional Monitoring in Heart Failure study. Circulation 2011;123:1873-1880.

27. Kitsiou S, Pare G, Jaana M. Effects of home telemonitoring interventions on patients with chronic heart failure: An overview of systematic reviews. J Med Internet Res 2015;17:e63.

28. TEC4Home Healthcare Innovation Community. Supporting heart failure patient transitions from acute to community care with home telemonitoring technology: A protocol for a provincial randomized controlled trial (TEC4Home). JMIR Res Protoc 2016;5:e198. 

29. Yao C, Ho K. Mobile sensors and wearable technologies. In: Amelung VE, Stein V, Goodwin N, et al., editors. Handbook integrated care. Cham, Switzerland: Springer; 2017.

30. Ho K, Borycki E, Kushniruk A, et al. The health perspective in using digital media for health and wellness. Presented at the IEEE International Digital Media Industry Forum, Boston, MA, 4-6 July 2016.

31. Azumio Inc. Instant heart rate. Accessed 28 August 2017. www.azumio.com/s/instantheartrate/index.html. 

32. Azumio Inc. Sleep time. Accessed 28 August 2017. www.azumio.com/s/sleeptime/index.html. 

33. RelaxLine. BellyBio. Accessed 28 August 2017. https://itunes.apple.com/ca/app/bellybio-interactive-breathing/id353763955?mt=8.

34. Ho K. How health information technologies are enhancing health of patients and their doctors. Presentation at the Alberta Medical Association 2015 Spring Representatives Forum, Edmonton, AB, 13 March 2015.


4. 《卡罗尔》(Carol)。这是托德·海因斯(Todd Haynes)第一次执导不由自己编剧的影片,编剧菲丽丝·奈吉(Phyllis Nagy)简化了派翠西亚·海史密斯(Patricia Highsmith)的小说原著,海因斯藉此再次证明,电影导演不必依靠拍自己亲自写的剧本才能成为伟大导演,这个真理却遭到许多雄心勃勃或功成名就的导演忽略。
伦敦商学院(London Business School,见上图)荣登2014年英国《金融时报》欧洲商学院排行榜榜首,该学院上一次夺得冠军宝座是在2005年。法国巴黎高等商学院(HEC Paris)和西班牙企业商学院(IE Business School)分列二、三位。
The potential for conflict will force China and the US to redefine their roles in a shifting environment that neither is comfortable with. Tensions will be aggravated by anti-China sentiment during the American elections. Asian countries are in a position to delineate the boundaries of influence for these two powers but, given their varied interests, alliances will shift depending on individual concerns.
高部长称,目前全国商品交易市场已经超过8万家,社会消费品零售总额在年底预计达到30万亿元,而消费对GDP的贡献接近60%。
Please accept our wishes for you and yours for a happy New Year.
Ask questions immediately if you don't understand something. If you're in the front row and have been making eye contact, your instructor probably already knows by the look on your face that you don't understand something. A polite raising of your hand is all you need to do to indicate you've got a question.
5. 2012年搞笑诺贝尔奖之化学奖
在我们有别于从前的失常状态中,她用所需要的一切使人们联想到生活的失重感。“这是一个时代的终结吗?这是美国的末日吗?”她在《When the World Was at War We Kept Dancing》(《当世界陷入战争之中,我们要继续跳舞》)这首歌中吟唱着。“不,这只是开始。”
据BusinessInsider.com报道,麦嘉华夸张地说,“QE基本上会成为我们下半辈子日常生活的一部分”。麦嘉华还说,2010年在贝南克灾难性试验的早期阶段,他曾给出“美联储奔向QE99”的警告。
单词appearance 联想记忆:

Kendall Ho, MD, FRCPC, Christopher Yao, MSc, Helen Novak Lauscher, PhD. Part 2: Health apps, wearables, and sensors: The advancing frontier of digital health. BCMJ, Vol. 59, No. 10, December, 2017, Page(s) 503-506 - Clinical Articles.



Above is the information needed to cite this article in your paper or presentation. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommends the following citation style, which is the now nearly universally accepted citation style for scientific papers:
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.

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LBS’s programmes consistently rank highly for the extent to which alumni reach their targets. “I managed to achieve not only the goals I set for myself but to exceed them with the job I secured,” says one 2010 MBA graduate who responded to the FT survey.
但我预计其他银行将效仿此举。在不涨薪的前提下,任何让优秀员工保持活力和积极性的办法都值得考虑。
The Chinese-made 3D fantasy/adventure film "Monster Hunt" broke a string of box-office records on its release in the country in July 2015, becoming the highest grossing film of the year in the Chinese mainland.
For those outside the scientific community, the response to the retraction has been mixed.

After IMD in second place, Duke Corporate Education completes the custom programme podium. It is the third year in a row that the US school is in third place, having previously topped this ranking for a record 12 consecutive years to 2014.

  • Only the first three authors are listed, followed by "et al."
  • 湖南将大力加强硅藻泥建材产业的扶持力度
  • 中国AI崛起:大量资金不断涌入 应用层面追平美国


Say this about Bank of America chief Brian Moynihan: He certainly knows how to talk the talk. In his letter to shareholders, Moynihan went out of his way to thank U.S. taxpayers for making $45 billion in TARP funds available. He also described how he is working closely with 'policy leaders' on financial reform. Whether he can walk the walk - i.e., turn around BofA's fortunes - is another matter. While the company did repay its TARP loan in December, it is still sitting on billions of dollars of vulnerable residential and commercial mortgage debt - one reason the company spent 8,000 words discussing risk in its annual report.
With the momentum now back behind the iPhone and anticipation growing for the Watch, Mr Cook seems to have won back the confidence of Apple employees, something that analysts say was obvious in his demeanour at this year’s product launches.

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