HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Thu, 03 Dec 2020 19:52:01 GMT 红杏直播登录号

9省(市)治理房地产制度落地 重庆重点整治炒卖房号

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: “黑名单”制度下的陶瓷业,将何去何从? (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

2016前三季度建材行业运行情况分析

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

5.ah, you look great in that dress. – Because it’s better than being slapped。
Wal-Mart U.S. president and CEO Bill Simon
美国公司高管的薪酬不断上升,收入差距越拉越大。在这种情况下,看到一位不光关心自身收入的CEO不禁让人眼前一亮。9月份,联想首席执行官杨元庆宣布,他将连续第二年和大约1万名联想员工分享他的奖金,数额至少为300万美元。他做出这个慷慨决定的原因是这家个人电脑制造商的年度销售额创下了历史新高。据彭博新闻(Bloomberg News)报道,参与“分成”的联想员工获得的奖金大约相当于中国普通城镇就业者一个月的收入。
黑人小伙克里斯和白人女孩露丝交往到了见家长的一步。露丝邀请男友去北部父母家共度周末。女友的父母对自己甚是热情,起初,克里斯把这种过度热情解读为父母试图面对女儿跨种族爱情的紧张反应,但随后,一连串蛛丝马迹令人越来越不安,克里斯渐渐察觉,背后的真相远非自己所能想象的。
“我亲眼见到一个女人死了,并且我看到美国总统拒绝明确谴责杀害她的人。”
11月份以美元计算的中国出口和进口额都增加了,此前它们经历了两个月的收缩,而且这一增长是在上月美国总统选举后美元升值背景下实现的。
首先,Bitstamp遭遇黑客袭击,以及2011年黑客袭击比特币交易平台Mt. Gox(此次黑客袭击要严重得多,其损失当时约合4亿美元),往往被误解为比特币本身存在安全问题。但事实上,这只能表明上述比特币交易平台存在缺陷,而非比特币技术本身存在问题。而最令人激动的,正是比特币背后的底层技术。正如《财富》杂志2015年1月刊《打造未来》系列报道中所写,大部分极为看好比特币、为其大声疾呼的狂热粉丝(包括马克o安德森这样的大牌企业家,也包括花大把时间更新比特币REDDIT页面的开发者和比特币“矿工”),更感兴趣的是能建立在比特币“区块”(该货币基本骨架)上的应用,而非比特币货币体系。两个实体间可通过“区块”安全交换任何形式的价值。

From the beginning, social networks have been effectively walled off from the Internet. The treasure trove of content on Facebook, for instance, doesn't generally show up on Google (GOOG). But does it have to be that way? Wouldn't it be convenient to see Twitter search results automatically displayed alongside a standard Google search, for example? And why, for instance, don't the latest tweets about a restaurant pop up when you're searching Yelp (YELP)? The competing interests of different networks sends this content behind proprietary walls, but a number of tools offer creative ways to bridge the gulf. (Full disclosure: My company has developed one such tool.)
'Winning the Skytrax World's Best Airport Award for the fifth consecutive year is immense encouragement to our 50,000-strong airport community at Changi Airport, every one of whom is passionate about delivering the most memorable airport experience to our passengers', said Lee Seow Hiang, CEO of Changi Airport Group, in a statement.
1983年的夏天,早熟的17岁少年埃利奥与家人一同在意大利北部伦巴第的17世纪乡间别墅度假。他邂逅了英俊的博士生奥利弗,后者是埃利奥父亲的实习生。那个夏天,一切都沉醉在灿烂阳光中,埃利奥和奥利弗彼此探索着欲望觉醒带来的令人晕眩的美。这个夏天将改变他们的一生。
n. 诱惑,引诱
我知道你们中很多人在公司里曾经找到过自己的前任。但是,这不是放之四海皆准的规律。搞办公室恋情可能会对你产生不好的影响。

Footnotes

  • 武汉首创应届生申请大学生租赁房
  • The clip, taken on a mobile phone, starts with the crowd singing the Frankie Valli lyrics: You're just too good to be true, can't take my eyes off of you'.

n. 光泽,上光剂,优雅,精良
艾丽斯·斯瓦策尔多年来一直为争取女性权利而斗争。她对像唐纳德·特朗普这样“老式的性别歧视者”能够当上美国总统深感震惊。
A heartfelt coming-of-age story that perfectly captures the bittersweet transition from adolescence to dawning adulthood...
但舒尔茨没有停留在担心这一步。美国政府停摆期间,星巴克还在一些日子里为给他人买咖啡的顾客免单。舒尔茨希望此举能帮助人们“在期待民选官员为了国家利益团结起来的同时,彼此也能团结起来。”
statement
单词refrigerator 联想记忆:

降准迫近?中国央行时隔36日重启逆回购操作

References

View Abstract