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预计投资2354亿元 今年北京市300项重点工程出清单

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 房价地理学:服务业占比高的城市房价就高 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

万科链家推新产品:号称要革装修界的命!

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

今年临近尾声之际,欧洲央行在12月3日投票削减其存款利率至负0.3%,并扩大资产购买,使量化宽松计划的规模达到1.46万亿欧元。此举出炉十几天后,美联储(Federal Reserve)自2006年以来首次提高利率,突显大西洋两岸正在推行的货币政策截然不同。
crime罪行+al表名词,“人,物,状态”→犯罪分子
A lot of the best James Bond theme songs sound like they belong in a lounge act. That's not a complaint, just an observation. For whatever reason, the English new wave act Duran Duran was given free reign to provide A View to a Kill with a new and exciting sound all its own. "A View to a Kill" was a hit song, and it probably would have been a success even without the James Bond connection. It's entertaining and cool and energetic, and it promises one hell of a good time. (Whether or not the movie actually lives up to that promise is a matter of some debate.)
You might think that our love of lists could be pinned on the Ten Commandments, but Umberto Eco says otherwise. “The list is the origin of the culture,” he once said on a subject he knows well, having written a book titled “The Infinity of Lists.” And culture wants “to make infinity comprehensible” and “to create order — not always, but often,” hence Homer’s catalogs in “The Iliad” and the roll call of never-completed household chores on my fridge. “We like lists because we don’t want to die,” Mr. Eco also said, which is the best explanation of the listicle that I’ve yet read.
这会吓走一些人,这些人不了解你更好。
4Germany
A Times reporter, Denise Grady, went inside an operating room to observe an experimental technique to treat severe spina bifida in a 24-week-old fetus. The doctors performing the surgery hope it will result in superior outcomes for children born with the disorder. Their first 28 surgeries have seen good results so far. Jan. 14 is the due date for the mother who was the subject of the article.

They come mostly from 50 different industries including food and beverage, automobiles and auto components, media, retail, energy and the Internet.
虽然周六欧锦赛中爱尔兰0-3不敌比利时,但这并没有让赴波尔多看球的爱尔兰球迷一蹶不振。
教育部也已采取了一些措施,例如取消考试成绩、将作弊行为记入个人档案中。
The auction house says seven records in all were set at the Geneva auction including the highest amount ever paid for a yellow diamond - $16.3 million for the 100.09-carat Graff Vivid Yellow diamond ring.
n. 蛋白质

Footnotes

  • 陶博会剧透:又一轮明星代言风暴来袭
  • 政府确实管了一些不该管、也不应属于自己管的事情,它束缚了市场主体的手脚,降低了行政效率,甚至影响了政府的公信力。

The excitement was triggered by a Reuters story that cited documents about the potential transaction as the source of its information. Samsung actually has made at least one play for BlackBerry BBRY -19.77% before, in 2012. As to this latest rumor, the alleged takeover target was the first to refute that a deal is in the works.
这份排行榜基于对商学院及其2013届毕业生的调查。根据校友职业发展、学校创意生成以及学员和师资多样化对MBA课程进行评比。
报告称,去年销售的手机大部分是预装安卓系统和支持4G的智能手机。
Han said on his social media that he only designed the original version of the mascot, which is the ink painting, but didn't participate in the 3D model design. "Of course we believe the ugly stuff has nothing to do with you," Web users said, responding to the respected artist.
传统上,在教学和研究水平方面,中国大学在国际排名排行榜上的评价要比美国和欧洲的高校逊色一些。
re回+spond承诺→承诺回去;respond的名词→回答;答应

从宜家经验谈实体店转型 重在“实体店+”

References

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